Chapter 4: Plagiarism vs. Copyright

The monkey debacle with PETA

  1. Primary oral culture
  2. Pictographic
  3. Chirographic
  4. Typography

Core Themes

  • Co-constitution
  • Suppression of radical potential


  • Coherent set of social values, beliefs and meanings; the values beliefs and meanings of the dominant class
  • Can be an economic division

Primary Oral Culture

  • Sacred, immediate, highly skilled mnemonic devices, dialogic, conservative, situational, homeostatic

Mnemonic - assisting or intended to assist the memory.

Homeostatic - internalized regulatory system

  • More of a thought experiment than anything else
  • ‘The word is sacred’
  • Radical ideas aren’t encouraged bc they’re difficult


Set of symbols that can be coded or decoded; system of visible marks whereby a writer could determine the exact words that the reader would generate from the text


  • Pictographic
  • Chirographic
  • Typographic
  • Literacy
  • Hieroglyph
  • Phonetic alphabet


  • Writing gives the false appearance of wisdom
  • writing destroys memory
  • Writing is unresponsive
  • Writing alienates the speaker

What can be taken from this

  • Words are not knowledge
  • Words are not complete representations of knowledge
  • Words are analogous to pictures

Literate Mind

  • Temporality: awareness of past/present/future
  • Interiority
  • Solitary
  • Accumulation of culture

Writing Technologies

  • Pictures
  • Carvings
  • Clay tokens
  • Cuneiform
  • Papyrus
  • Control at a distance
  • Parchment

Medieval Literacy

  • Sacred
  • Learned
  • Bureaucratic
  • Vernacular (appearance of common language outside of latin. Secular trade)

Printing Press

  • Paper ++ Printing Press
  • Paper made from old linen
  • Paper had to be invented first before printing press could ‘take off'

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