Lecture 13: Electron Configurations

  • SS block elements
  • PP block elements
  • dd block elements \rightarrow Transition Metals
  • ff  block elements \rightarrow Lanthanides (4f4f) and Actinides (5f5f)
  • Metaloids - Show properties of metals and non-metals
  • Transition Metals - Electrons are removed from the highest energy shell

  • How many impaired electrons?
  • 4S4S is lower energy than 3d3d, but once 4S4S is full it is higher energy from 3d3d
  • Electrons are always removed from the highest energy
  • What is the electron configuration of Mn4+Mn^{4+} ?
  • 1S22S2Sp63S23p64S23d31S^2 2S^2 Sp^6 3S^2 3p^6 4S^2 3d^3 or 1S22S22p63S23p63d31S^2 2S^2 2p^6 3S^2 3p^6 3d^3

  • Isoelectronic Series - All the species with the same number of electrons
  • Orbital Penetration - S>P>d>fS>P>d>f
  • Shield Effect - Effective nuclear charge
  • The positive charge that an electron actually experiences, ZeffZ_{eff} and this is always somewhat less than the actual than the nuclear charge
  • ZeffZ_{eff} = 2s2 - s (ss - shielding constant)
  • Penetration of Orbitals - An electron in an ss orbital has a finite, albeit very small probability of being located quite close to the nucleus
  • The ss orbital is more penetrated than pp or dd, meaning than an electron is an ss orbital that has a greater chance of being located close to the nucleus than an electron in a pp  or dd orbital









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