Lecture 24: Optical Activity and Reaction and Reagent Types

optical activity

  • Light Source \rightarrow Unpolarized Light \rightarrow Initial Plane of Polarization (Polarizing Filter) \rightarrow Plane-Polarized Light \rightarrow Solution of Chiral Substance \rightarrow Plane-Polarized Light after Rotation of Plane Polarization \rightarrow Analyzing Filter \rightarrow Viewer
  • Optical Activity - Plane of plane polarized light, the direction the plane is rotated to
  • One to the left and one to the right
  • This is the difference in optical isomeres
  • All other compounds are the same
  1. Dextrorotatory \rightarrow Rotation of the plane to the right
  2. Levorotatory \rightarrow Rotation of the plane to the left
  • Analyzer - Angle of rotation

reaction types

reagent types

  • Nucleophiles (Lewis Basis) OHXOH^- X^-
  • Affinity for the positive charge - nucleus
  • Carries negative charge
  • Electrophiles (Lewis Acid) NO2+NO_2^+
  • Carries positive charge
  • Oxidizing Agent
  • Cr4O72Cr_4 O_7^{2-}
  • Reducing Agent
  • AlH4AlH_4
  • Bronsted-Lowry Acid
  • HClHCl
  • Radicals
  • Odd electron
  • Not very stable - extremely reacted
  • Reactions - main used

mechanism of substitution

  • SS - Substitution
  • NN - Nucleophile (OH)(OH^-)
  • 2 - Bi-Molecular (2 species)
  • Difference between the above
  • All are Hydrogen (bonds)
  • 1 bond is CH3CH_3
  • 2 bonds are CH3CH_3
  • Relative Rate decreases from primary to secondary to tertiary as the approach of OHOH^- is difficult due to steric hindrance
  • Consequence of steric effects
  • This is the slowing of chemical reactions due to steric bulk
  • Tertiary has a higher relative rate

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